Psychiatric Services


Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and some physiological changes. People with anxiety disorders usually have recurring intrusive thoughts or concerns. They may avoid certain situations out of worry. They may also have symptoms such as sweating, trembling, dizziness or rapid heartbeat.

Types of Anxiety Disorders

Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
Excessive anxiety and worry about a number of events or activities (future oriented), occurring more days than not, for at least 6 months.

Symptoms:
•    Worry
•    Restlessness
•    Easily fatigued
•    Difficulty in concentrating
•    Irritability
•    Muscle tension
•    Sleep disturbances

Panic Disorder:
A panic attack is a sudden surge of overwhelming anxiety and fear. Your heart pounds and you can’t breathe. You may even feel like you’re dying or going crazy. Left untreated, panic attacks can lead to panic disorder and other problems. Panic disorder is characterized by repeated panic attacks, combined with major changes in behaviour or persistent anxiety over having further attacks.

Symptoms:
•    Palpitations
•    Sweating
•    Trembling or shaking
•    Shortness of breath
•    Feeling of hunger
•    Chest pain
•    Feeling dizzy or faint
•    Fear of losing control or going crazy
•    Fear of dying
•    Numbness

Agoraphobia
Fear of being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult. Often results in avoidance of the feared places or situations.
Example:
Avoiding Crowds, Stores, Bridges, Tunnels, Theatres, Standing in a line, Small enclosed room, Travelling in a bus, train or aeroplane etc.

Social phobia:
Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed. This fear can be so strong that it gets in the way of going to work or school or doing other everyday things.
Example:
Fear of public speaking
Writing, eating or drinking in public
Initiating or maintaining conversations

Specific phobia:
Specific phobia is persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable, usually triggered by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation.
Example:
Fear of Flying, Enclosed spaces, Heights, Storms, Animals, Receiving an injection, Blood etc.

Depression

Depression is a mental state characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach. They might be accompanied by some of the following signs:

  • A constant feeling of sadness, anxiety, and emptiness
  • The person feels hopeless
  • Individuals can feel restless
  • Irritability
  • Patients may lose interest in activities or hobbies they once enjoyed
  • He/she may lose interest in sex
  • Low levels of energy; fatigue sets in easily
  • Difficulty in concentration, remembering details, and making decisions
  • Sleep patterns are disturbed - the person may sleep too little or too much
  • Eating habits may change - he/she may either eat too much or have no appetite
  • Suicidal thoughts may occur - some may act on those thoughts
  • Experiencing aches and pains, headaches, cramps, or digestive problems.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

Obsessions are involuntary, seemingly uncontrollable thoughts, images, or impulses that occur over and over again in your mind. You don’t want to have these ideas but you can’t stop them.

For example:

Repeated doubts, worry about contamination, aggresive impulses, sexual images Compulsions are behaviours or rituals that you feel driven to act out again and again. Usually, compulsions are performed in an attempt to make obsessions go away.

For example:

Hand washing, Cleaning, Checking, Praying, Repeating words and Counting, keeping things in order and symmetry.

Most people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) fall into one of the following categories:

  • Washers are afraid of contamination. They usually have cleaning or hand-washing compulsions.
  • Checkers repeatedly check things (gas turned off, door locked, etc.) that they associate with harm or danger.
  • Doubters and sinners are afraid that if everything isn’t perfect or done just right something terrible will happen or they will be punished.
  • Counters and arrangers are obsessed with order and symmetry. They may have superstitions about certain numbers, colours, or arrangements.
  • Hoarders fear that something bad will happen if they throw anything away. They compulsively hoard things that they don’t need or use.

 

Sleep Disorders

Most of us have experienced trouble sleeping at one time or another. This is normal and usually temporary, due to stress or other outside factors. But if sleep problems are a regular occurrence and interfere with your daily life, you may be suffering from a sleep disorder. Sleep disorders cause more than just sleepiness.

Symptoms:

  • Feeling irritable or sleepy during the day
  • Having difficulty staying awake when sitting still, watching television or reading
  • Falling asleep or feel very tired while driving
  • Having difficulty in concentrating
  • Often get told by others that you look tired
  • Having trouble controlling your emotions
  • Feeling like you have to take a nap almost every day
  • Require caffeinated beverages to keep you going

 

Sexual Disorders

This can be characterized by the presence of any of the following difficulties -

  • Persistently reduced or absent sexual interest
  • Extreme aversion to all genital sexual contact
  • Persistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse
  • Difficulty in obtaining or maintaining erection sufficient for Intercourse

Schizophrenia/Psychotic Disorders

Schizophrenia is a challenging disorder that makes it difficult to distinguish between what is real and unreal, think clearly, manage emotions, relate to others, and function normally.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorganized speech
  • Disorganized behavior
  • Lack of emotional expression
  • Lack of interest or enthusiasm
  • Seeming lack of interest in the world
  • Speech difficulties and abnormalities

 

Bipolar Disorders/Mania

Bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) causes serious shifts in mood, energy, thinking, and behaviour—from the highs of mania on one extreme, to the lows of depression on the other. More than just a fleeting good or bad mood, the cycles of bipolar disorder last for days, weeks, or months. And unlike ordinary mood swings, the mood changes of bipolar disorder are so intense that they interfere with your ability to function.

There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder: mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed episodes. Each type of bipolar disorder mood episode has a unique set of symptoms.

Symptoms of mania include:

  • Feeling unusually “high” and optimistic OR extremely irritable
  • Unrealistic, grandiose beliefs about one’s abilities or powers
  • Sleeping very little, but feeling extremely energetic
  • Talking so rapidly that others can’t keep up
  • Racing thoughts; jumping quickly from one idea to the next
  • Highly distractible, unable to concentrate
  • Impaired judgment and impulsiveness
  • Acting recklessly without thinking about the consequences
  • Delusions and hallucinations (in severe cases)

Symptoms of Hypomania include:

  • Hypomania is a less severe form of mania. People in a hypomanic state feel euphoric, energetic, and productive, but they are able to carry on with their day-to-day lives and they never lose touch with reality.

Symptoms of Bipolar Depression include:

  • Feeling hopeless, sad, or empty.
  • Irritability
  • Inability to experience pleasure
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Physical and mental sluggishness
  • Appetite or weight changes
  • Sleep problems
  • Concentration and memory problems
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Thoughts of death or suicide

Symptoms of a mixed episode include:
A mixed episode of bipolar disorder features symptoms of both mania or hypomania and depression. Common signs of a mixed episode include depression combined with agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, distractibility, and racing thoughts. This combination of high energy and low mood makes for a particularly high risk of suicide.

Learning Disabilities

Children and adults with learning disabilities see, hear, and understand things differently. This can lead to trouble with learning new information and skills, and putting them to use. The most common types of learning disabilities involve problems with reading, writing, math, reasoning, listening, and speaking.

Preschool signs and symptoms of learning disabilities

  • Problems pronouncing words
  • Trouble finding the right word
  • Difficulty rhyming
  • Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the week
  • Difficulty following directions or learning routines
  • Difficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the lines
  • Trouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoes


Ages 5-9 signs and symptoms of learning disabilities

  • Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds
  • Unable to blend sounds to make words
  • Confuses basic words when reading
  • Consistently misspells words and makes frequent reading errors
  • Trouble learning basic math concepts
  • Difficulty telling time and remembering sequences
  • Slow to learn new skills


Ages 10-13 signs and symptoms of learning disabilities

  • Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills
  • Trouble with open-ended test questions and word problems
  • Dislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloud
  • Spells the same word differently in a single document
  • Poor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized)
  • Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloud
  • Poor handwriting

Attention Deficit Disorders

It’s normal for children to occasionally forget their homework, daydream during class, act without thinking, or get fidgety at the dinner table. But inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are also signs of attention deficit disorder (ADD/ADHD), which can affect your child’s ability to learn and get along with others. The first step to addressing the problem is to recognize the signs and symptoms.

Children with ADD/ADHD may be:

  • Inattentive, but not hyperactive or impulsive.
  • Hyperactive and impulsive, but able to pay attention.
  • Inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive (the most common form of ADD/ADHD).

Symptoms of inattention in children:

  • Doesn’t pay attention to details
  • Makes careless mistakes
  • Has trouble staying focused; is easily distracted
  • Appears not to listen when spoken to
  • Has difficulty remembering things and following instructions
  • Has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects
  • Gets bored with a task before it’s completed
  • Frequently loses or misplaces homework, books, toys, or other items

Symptoms of hyperactivity in children:

  • Constantly fidgets and squirms
  • Often leaves his or her seat in situations where sitting quietly is expected
  • Moves around constantly, often runs or climbs inappropriately
  • Talks excessively
  • Has difficulty playing quietly or relaxing
  • Is always “on the go,” as if driven by a motor
  • May have a quick temper or a “short fuse”

Symptoms of impulsivity in children:

  • Acts without thinking
  • Blurts out answers in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question
  • Can’t wait for his or her turn in line or in games
  • Says the wrong thing at the wrong time
  • Often interrupts others
  • Intrudes on other people’s conversations or games
  • Inability to keep powerful emotions in check, resulting in angry outbursts or temper tantrums
  • Guesses, rather than taking time to solve a problem

Memory Disorders/Dementia

Dementia is commonly seen in individuals older than 65 years of age. It is a progressive, global impairment of cognitive functions. It usually results in significant impairment in social, occupational functioning and causes a significant decline from the previous level of functioning.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Decline in memory – difficulty in recalling previous information, difficulty in learning new information
  • Deterioration in judgment, thinking, planning, organization and a general processing of information
  • Difficulty in recognizing  people previously known
  • Abnormality in motor function – slowed movements, abnormal gait, in coordination
  • Decline in motivational emotional control

Alcohol & Drug De-addiction

Addiction is a term defined a chronic relapsing disorder for people abusing substances like Smoking, alcohol, rave drugs, medical drugs. It is a tendency to make one feel euphoric (well-being), there are several drugs which are available in the market which are used for abuse.

Several routes of drug transmission - Drinking, smoking, injecting, pills.

Signs and symptoms of addiction:

  • Bloodshot eyes, pupils larger or smaller than usual
  • Changes in appetite or sleep patterns. Sudden weight loss or weight gain
  • Deterioration of physical appearance, personal grooming habits
  • Unusual smells on breath, body, or clothing
  • Tremors, slurred speech, or impaired coordination
  • Unexplained need for money or financial problems. May borrow or steal to get it.
  • Engaging in secretive or suspicious behaviors
  • Sudden change in friends, favorite hangouts, and hobbies
  • Frequently getting into trouble (fights, accidents, illegal activities)
  • Unexplained change in personality or attitude
  • Sudden mood swings, irritability, or angry outbursts
  • Periods of unusual hyperactivity, agitation, or giddiness
  • Lack of motivation; appears lethargic or “spaced out”
  • Appears fearful, anxious, or paranoid, with no reason

Electro Convulsive Therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure. ECT seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse symptoms of certain mental illnesses. It often works when other treatments are unsuccessful.

ECT is much safer today and is given to people while they're under general anaesthesia. Although ECT still causes some side effects, it now uses electrical currents given in a controlled setting to achieve the most benefit with the fewest possible risks.

ECT is used to treat:

  • Severe depression, particularly when accompanied by detachment from reality (psychosis), a desire to commit suicide or refusal to eat.
  • Treatment-resistant depression, a severe depression that doesn't improve with medications or other treatments.
  • Severe mania, a state of intense euphoria, agitation or hyperactivity that occurs as part of bipolar disorder. Other signs of mania include impaired decision making, impulsive or risky behavior, substance abuse, and psychosis.
  • Catatonia, characterized by lack of movement, fast or strange movements, lack of speech, and other symptoms. It's associated with schizophrenia and some other psychiatric disorders. In some cases, catatonia is caused by a medical illness.
  • Agitation and aggression in people with dementia, which can be difficult to treat and negatively affect quality of life.


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